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Optimal Digital Watermarking in the Spatial Domain using Rao Algorithm

Original Article | Open Access


Satveer Kaur

Puneet Jain

About Authors

It's becoming increasingly challenging to safeguard multimedia's authenticity and integrity due to the rapid growth of internet technologies. Watermarking has become a major factor in copyright protection, data authentication, and other areas in the last few decades. The main contribution of this paper is to design an optimal digital watermarking method in the spatial domain. To achieve this goal, ROA algorithm is taken under consideration. The RAO algorithm searches the optimal watermark data order for hiding in the cover image. ROA algorithm is successfully is applied in constrained and unconstrained optimization problems. Besides that, pre-processing on the cover image and watermark data is done to enhance the security of the proposed method. The pre-processing on the cover image is done to determine the optimal block based on the cover image based on the entropy parameter. On the other hand, pre-processing of the watermark data is done using chaotic logistic map algorithm for encryption purposes. The standard dataset is taken under consideration for simulation evaluation. The simulation is performed in MATLAB. The subjective and objective analysis of the proposed method is done and result shows that the proposed method is superior over existing methods.

1Research Scholar, Electronics and Communication Engineering Dept., Adesh Institute of Engineering & Technology, Faridkot, Punjab, India.

2Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Dept., Adesh Institute of Engineering & Technology, Faridkot, Punjab, India.

3Research Scholar, Electronics and Communication Engineering Dept., Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Patiala, Punjab, India.,

Digital Watermarking, Least Significant Bit (LSB), RAO Algorithm, Spatial Domain, Security, Steganography

Published: 04 August 2022

PAPER ID: IRJEEEV1I107221222000004

Pages: 01-10

DOI: 10.55083/cct.irjeee.2022.v01i01004

Journal: IRJEEE, Volume 1, Issue 1





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Satveer, Puneet Jain, Ajay Kumar. (2022). Optimal Digital Watermarking in the Spatial Domain using Rao Algorithm. International Research Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering  (IRJEEE), Vol.1 Issue 1, pp 01-10.